The qScript One-Step SYBR® Green RT-qPCR Kit is a convenient and highly sensitive solution for quantitative RT-PCR of RNA templates (RT-qPCR) using SYBR Green I dye detection and gene-specific primers. cDNA synthesis and PCR amplification are carried out in the same tube without opening between procedures.The proprietary reaction buffer has been specifically formulated to maximize activities of both reverse transcriptase and Taq DNA polymerase while minimizing the potential for primer-dimer and other non-specific PCR artifacts. This reagent is compatible with both fast and standard qPCR cycling protocols.
Precise amplification is essential for successful RT-qPCR with SYBR Green I technology since this dye binds to all dsDNA generated during amplification. This 1-step reagent contains ultra-pure AccuStart hot start Taq DNA polymerase that is completely arrested prior to the initial PCR denaturation step. Upon heat activation at 95°C, the antibodies are rapidly and irreversibly denatured, releasing a fully active high-yielding Taq DNA polymerase.
While honey bee exposure to systemic insecticides has received much attention, impacts on
wild pollinators have not been as widely studied. Neonicotinoids have been shown to increase
acetylcholinesterase (AChe) activity in honey bees at sublethal doses. High AChe levels may
therefore act as a biomarker of exposure to neonicotinoids. this two-year study focused on
establishing whether bumble bees living and foraging in agricultural areas using neonicotinoid crop
protection show early biochemical signs of intoxication. Bumble bee colonies (Bombus impatiens)
were placed in two different agricultural cropping areas: 1) control (≥3 km from fields planted
with neonicotinoid-treated seeds) or 2) exposed (within 500 m of fields planted with neonicotinoidtreated seeds), and maintained for the duration of corn sowing. As determined by Real time qpCR,
AChE mRNA expression was initially significantly higher in bumble bees from exposed sites, then
decreased throughout the planting season to reach a similar endpoint to that of bumble bees from
control sites. These findings suggest that exposure to neonicotinoid seed coating particles during the
planting season can alter bumble bee neuronal activity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to
report in situ that bumble bees living in agricultural areas exhibit signs of neonicotinoid intoxication.
Eukaryotic cells are often preferred for the production of complex enzymes and biopharmaceuticals due to their ability to form post-translational modifications and inherent quality control system within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A non-conventional yeast species, Yarrowia lipolytica, has attracted attention due to its high protein secretion capacity and advanced secretory pathway. Common means of improving protein secretion in Y. lipolytica include codon optimization, increased gene copy number, inducible expression, and secretory tag engineering. In this study, we develop effective strategies to enhance protein secretion using the model heterologous enzyme T4 lysozyme.
By engineering the commonly used native lip2prepro secretion signal, we have successfully improved secreted T4 lysozyme titer by 17-fold. Similar improvements were measured for other heterologous proteins, including hrGFP and α-amylase. In addition to secretion tag engineering, we engineered the secretory pathway by expanding the ER and co-expressing heterologous enzymes in the secretion tag processing pathway, resulting in combined 50-fold improvement in T4 lysozyme secretion.
Overall, our combined strategies not only proved effective in improving the protein production in Yarrowia lipolytica, but also hint the possible existence of a different mechanism of secretion regulation in ER and Golgi body in this non-conventional yeast.
Hirschprung's disease is characterized by aganglionic bowel and often requires surgical resection. Cell-based therapies have been investigated as potential alternatives to restore functioning neurons. Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) differentiate into neural and glial cells in vitro and generate ganglion-like structures in rodents. In this report, we aimed to translate this approach into a large animal model of aganglionosis using autologous transplantation of SKPs.
Juvenile pigs underwent skin procurement from the shoulder and simultaneous chemical denervation of an isolated colonic segment. Skin cells were cultured in neuroglial-selective medium and labeled with fluorescent dye for later identification. The cultured SKPs were then injected into the aganglionic segments of colon, and the specimens were retrieved within seven days after transplantation. SKPs in vitro and in vivo were assessed with histologic samples for various immunofluorescent markers of multipotency and differentiation. SKPs from the time of harvest were compared to those at the time of injection using PCR.
Prior to transplantation, 72% of SKPs stained positive for nestin and S100b, markers of neural and glial precursor cells of neural crest origin, respectively. Markers of differentiated neurons and gliocytes, TUJ1 and GFAP, were detected in 47% of cultured SKPs. After transplantation, SKPs were identified in both myenteric and submucosal plexuses of the treated colon. Nestin co-expression was detected in the SKPs within the aganglionic colon in vivo. Injected SKPs appeared to migrate and express early neuroglial differentiation markers.
Autologous SKPs implanted into aganglionic bowel demonstrated immunophenotypes of neuroglial progenitors. Our results suggest that autologous SKPs may be potentially useful for cell-based therapy for patients with enteric nervous system disorders.
Type of Study
Endemic co-circulation of potentially zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) of subtypes H5N1 and H9N2 (G1 lineage) in poultry in Bangladesh accelerated diversifying evolution. Two clinical samples from poultry obtained in 2016 yielded five different subtypes (highly pathogenic [HP] H5N1, HP H5N2, HP H7N1, HP H7N2, H9N2) and eight genotypes of AIV by plaque purification. H5 sequences grouped with clade 188.8.131.52a viruses while N1 was related to an older, preceding clade, 2.2.2. The internal genome segments of the plaque-purified viruses originated from clade 2.2.2 of H5N1 or from G1/H9N2 viruses. H9 and N2 segments clustered with contemporary H9N2 strains. In addition, HP H7 sequences were detected for the first time in samples and linked to Pakistani HP H7N3 viruses of 2003. The unexpected findings of mixtures of reassorted HP H5N1 and G1-like H9N2 viruses, which carry genome segments of older clades in association with the detection of HP H7 HA segments calls for confirmation of these results by targeted surveillance in the area of origin of the investigated samples. Hidden niches and obscured transmission pathways may exist that retain or re-introduce genome segments of older viruses or reassortants thereof which causes additional challenges for diagnosis, risk assessment and disease control.
The highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus Marek’s disease virus (MDV) causes immense economic losses in the poultry industry. MDV induces a variety of symptoms in infected chickens, including neurological disorders and immunosuppression. Most notably, MDV induces transformation of lymphocytes, leading to T cell lymphomas in visceral organs with a mortality of up to 100%. While several factors involved in MDV tumorigenesis have been identified, the transformation process and tumor composition remain poorly understood. Here we developed an imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) approach that allows sensitive visualization of MDV-induced lymphoma with a specific mass profile and precise differentiation from the surrounding tissue. To identify potential tumor markers in tumors derived from a very virulent wild-type virus and a telomerase RNA-deficient mutant, we performed laser capture microdissection (LCM) and thereby obtained tumor samples with no or minimal contamination from surrounding nontumor tissue. The proteomes of the LCM samples were subsequently analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry based on stable isotope labeling. Several proteins, like interferon gamma-inducible protein 30 and a 70-kDa heat shock protein, were identified that are differentially expressed in tumor tissue compared to surrounding tissue and naive T cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that MDV-induced tumors can be visualized using IMS, and we identified potential MDV tumor markers by analyzing the proteomes of virus-induced tumors.
IMPORTANCE Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus that infects chickens and causes the most frequent clinically diagnosed cancer in the animal kingdom. Not only is MDV an important pathogen that threatens the poultry industry but it is also used as a natural virus-host model for herpesvirus-induced tumor formation. In order to visualize MDV-induced lymphoma and to identify potential biomarkers in an unbiased approach, we performed imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and noncontact laser capture microdissection. This study provides a first description of the visualization of MDV-induced tumors by IMS that could be applied also for diagnostic purposes. In addition, we identified and validated potential biomarkers for MDV-induced tumors that could provide the basis for future research on pathogenesis and tumorigenesis of this malignancy.